Self-immolation persists as grim form of protest in Tunisia


In his previous life, Hosni Kalaia remembers strolling the streets of his hometown of Kasserine in central Tunisia with confidence. He flashed his heavy gold bracelets and rings, and puffed out his chest, broad and sculptured from common exercises.

Today, Kalaia hides his face from the world behind darkish sun shades and beneath a woolen hat. On his left hand, three blackened, gnarled fingers protrude from one glove; on his proper, he has none in any respect.

He misplaced them in the few seconds it took to disfigure his life eternally, when — offended and distraught in regards to the abuse and injustice he’d suffered by the hands of a neighborhood police chief — Kalaia doused himself in gasoline and set himself on fireplace.

He’s amongst a whole bunch of Tunisians who’ve turned to the determined act of self-immolation in the previous 10 years, following the instance of Mohammed Bouazizi, a 26-year-old fruit vendor in the city of Sidi Bouzid who set himself ablaze on December 17, 2010, to protest police harassment.

Bouazizi’s grotesque dying unwittingly unleashed mass demonstrations in opposition to poverty and repression, resulting in the downfall of Tunisia’s dictator of 23 years. That in flip sparked the Arab Spring uprisings and a decade of crackdowns and civil wars throughout the area.

“I would never describe the act of self-immolation as an act of courage because even the bravest person in the world couldn’t do it,” Kalaia, 49, informed The Associated Press in his household dwelling. “When I poured the petrol over my head, I didn’t think very much, because I wasn’t really conscious about what I was doing. Then I saw a flash, I felt my skin start to burn and I fell down. I woke up eight months later in hospital.”

He says it hasn’t gotten any simpler seeing the shock on folks’s faces when he removes his hat and sun shades. Rivulets of scars fray and splinter throughout his face and misshapen ears, and there are furious, deep welts on his arms and abdomen.

His youthful brother set himself ablaze too, killing himself, and his mom tried to do the identical, their household a graphic reminder of the chaos and financial turmoil in this North African nation.

Most in all places in the Arab world, the demonstrators’ desires have been shattered. Tunisia is usually thought-about a hit story and a Tunisian democracy group gained the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize, however whereas it has extra civil liberties, free expression, and political plurality, the nation is suffering from an ever-worsening financial disaster.

Lack of socio-economic reforms, the devaluation of the Tunisian dinar and weak, inefficient governance have did not alleviate poverty or totally revive funding. Amid the Covid-19 pandemic, unemployment has risen to 18%. Attempts emigrate to Europe by sea have soared.

“There is a huge gap between people’s aspirations and their means. It is this gap that pushes people further into misery,” mentioned Abdessater Sahbani, a sociologist on the University of Tunis. “You can have a good job and be well-educated, but it doesn’t give you anything substantial.”

The quantity of self-immolations has tripled since 2011, and “the rise has persisted right into 2020,” mentioned Dr. Mehdi Ben Khelil of Tunis’ Charles Nicolle Hospital, who research the phenomenon.

After the revolution, Ben Khelil mentioned, “there was a contrast between what we hoped for versus what we gained. Disillusion kept on growing.”

Although there are not any official statistics, the Tunisian Social Observatory of the Tunisian Forum for Economic and Social Rights recorded 62 such suicides or makes an attempt in the primary 10 months of 2020.

Most happen close to native administration or authorities buildings to protest monetary insecurity and struggling, mentioned Najla Arfa, challenge supervisor on the observatory. Police abuse is usually a set off.

The overwhelming majority are working-class males in their 20s and 30s, dwelling in disadvantaged inside areas such as Kairouan and Sidi Bouzid. Of 13 survivors contacted by AP, all mentioned they wanted monetary assist.

In the last decade since Bouazizi’s suicide, little has modified in his hometown of Sidi Bouzid. Huddles of jobless younger males sit chain-smoking on plastic chairs in cafés. Others stand in line to purchase canisters of cooking gasoline after a strike disrupted provides and compelled folks to make use of firewood.

With monuments in his reminiscence, the city has turn into a shrine to Bouazizi, whose life resembles these of thousands and thousands of different Tunisians. But not everybody regards his legacy positively.

“His act had a negative effect on the whole country and especially for Sidi Bouzid,” says 30-year-old accounting assistant Marwa Hamdouni. “I think only his family benefited. But for the governorate of Sidi Bouzid, the revolution did not bring anything good.”

In 2013, Bouazizi’s household moved to Montreal. Experts say that tales of his household gaining financially from his dying spawned different such suicides, notably proper after the revolution.

Ben Khelil, the physician, says the explanations transcend that: “Behind immolation, there is the desire to express their words and suffering. For certain people, the desire it not to die but to be heard.”

Survivors face immense psychological, bodily, and monetary challenges.

“Some scars may heal badly and might hinder certain functions such as sitting, chewing and expressing facial emotions,” Ben Khelil says. “There can be a lot of persistent pain, especially when the scars are deep and touch the nerves.”

Kalaia spent three years in a hospital after which a personal clinic recovering from his burns. He can’t maintain a bottle of water, gown himself with out help or go to sleep with out treatment. His arms are nonetheless riddled with infections.

“I’m not going to tell you I regret waking up, but dying would have been better,” Kalaia says, dragging on a cigarette. “Nowadays, I don’t think about killing myself another time, but I ask God for death because I’m so tired.”

The Quran forbids suicide, and lots of Muslim societies regard it as taboo. This doesn’t forestall a whole bunch of Tunisians trying it yearly.

In 2014, Kalaia’s mom, Zina Sehi, now 68, tried to burn herself to dying in entrance of the president’s palace in Tunis, protesting the federal government’s lack of help for the household. The subsequent 12 months, his 35-year-old brother Saber did the identical, dying immediately. Kalaia blames himself for his or her actions.

The authorities created a committee to stop such suicides in 2015, however political turmoil has led to a collection of short-term governments which have taken little deep motion to assist survivors or their households.

“Do you see what this state did for me? It is the state that left me in this corner,” Kalaia says, gesturing to a mattress on the ground of his dwelling the place he sleeps. “It’s over, my life is over.”


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