Everything you need to know about hernia, its types and treatment


Written by  Dr Aparna Govil Bhasker

Hernia is the protrusion of an organ or tissue from an irregular opening within the muscle or tissue that holds it in place. A hernia may be seen in all age-groups and genders. In kids, congenital hernias are frequent, inguinal hernias are seen extra usually in males, whereas umbilical and femoral hernias are seen extra generally in girls.

The most typical types of hernias are-

*Inguinal (within the groin)- 73%
*Femoral (under the groin in higher thigh)- 17%
*Umbilical (by way of the navel)- 8.5%
*Congenital (belly organ, bowel or viscera)
*Epigastric (above the navel, within the midline)
*Incisional (by way of the scars of any earlier surgical procedure)
*Rare types- lumbar, spigelian, obturator and gluteal

Inguinal hernia is most typical in males.(Source: Getty Images/Thinkstock)

The two foremost elements which might be implicated in inflicting a hernia are the weak spot of belly muscle mass and elevated stress contained in the stomach which tends to pressure the inner contents out by way of the weakened space. Abdominal wall weak spot could also be congenital or could possibly be a results of extreme fats, repeated pregnancies, or a surgical incision. On the opposite hand, elevated belly stress could also be a results of long-standing cough, constipation, urinary straining, heavy train, and so on.

When to get a medical check-up executed?

Most sufferers seek the advice of consultants with complaints of a dragging and aching ache and/or a lump which will improve in dimension on exertion and cut back in dimension on resting or mendacity down. Sometimes, the hernia could get obstructed or strangulated and, in that case, could current
with vomiting, constipation, and a swollen stomach together with extreme ache within the stomach. If you are experiencing any sort of ache or a lump within the belly or groin space, it’s advisable to go to a surgeon for a check-up. The analysis of hernia is often by medical examination. Investigations like ultrasonography or CT scan could also be required. At the identical time, it is usually essential to decide the reason for hernia.


The treatment is principally surgical; hernia can’t be handled by medicines alone. Hernia surgical procedure often includes the discount of hernial contents, restore of the defect, and reinforcement of the defect with a mesh. Surgery may be carried out both by way of open approach or by laparoscopy. The selection of approach (open/laparoscopic) relies upon upon the medical traits of the hernia and the choice of the working surgeon. While laparoscopic surgical procedure is the popular strategy for many hernias these days, open hernia surgical procedure could also be required for very giant, complicated, or recurrent hernias. Laparoscopy has many benefits over open surgical procedure because it causes little or no trauma, much less ache, early restoration, early discharge from the hospital, and earlier return to work. Nowadays even complicated hernia surgical procedures are being carried out efficiently by way of the laparoscopic approach.

Hernia surgical procedure is likely one of the most typical surgical procedures that’s carried out internationally. If you really feel that you do have a bulge wherever in your stomach or within the area of the groin, do seek the advice of a surgeon instantly.

After the surgical procedure, it will be important to take care and not overexert your self for the primary few months. Recurrence of hernia is a widely known complication and can occur extra in individuals in whom the basis reason for elevated stress within the stomach has not been handled alongside
with the hernia. Hence it is usually essential to keep away from rigorous exercise, deal with constipation, deal with the cough, and so on.

However, most sufferers do nicely after surgical procedure. The science of hernia restore has superior lots and many new interventions and methods have are available in not too long ago.

(The creator is a bariatric and laparoscopic surgeon, Dr Aparna’s- Laparoscopy & Bariatric Surgery Centre, Mumbai)

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